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Brief introduction of Coronavirus

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that causes upper respiratory tract infection, middle eastern respiratory syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans.

COVID-19 (SARS_COV2) is a member of the Coronavirus family recently discovered in late December 2019 and is believed to be transmitted via a zoonotic transmission (animal to human). It is an infectious disease that spreads from person to person. The virus spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes and the droplets land on an unaffected person. It is also thought to be transmitted from unanimated objects.

 COVID-19 affects the respiratory system causing upper and lower respiratory tract infection including fever, cough with productive mucous, dyspnea, work up breathing, In addition to severe cases it affects other organ systems including GI tract (nausea, vomiting), liver (hypoxic liver), heart (increased heart rate, decrease blood volume, increase vasodilation), kidneys (increase in creatinine, urea,) and hypothalamus in the brain (fever). 

How the Coronavirus affects the body?

Coronavirus is an enveloped RNA virus that attacks the alveoli in the lungs once it enters the body.

In alveoli, there are Type 1 pneumocytes which are responsible for gas exchange, and Type 2 pneumocytes are responsible for the production of surfactant within the alveoli to maintain surface tension.

The virus attacks Type 2 pneumocytes that produce surfactant and decreases surface tension in alveoli resulting in the alveoli to collapse. 


Upon entering the body, the Coronavirus releases its S-spike protein which binds to host enzymes preferably Angiotensin-converting 2 enzymes which allows the virus to enter into the cell. The virus releases the +SSRNA into the cytoplasm of type 2 pneumocytes. It uses the host cell ribosomes and undergoes translation (convert mRNA to proteins) to produce polyproteins. The SSRNA also binds to the RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme and produces virus-induced RNA strands. It utilizes polyproteins using enzymes proteinases which proteolytically turn polyproteins to virus components (nuclear capsid, enzymes, S-spike protein) using RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzymes synthesizing new coronavirus and viral particles. this process, in turn, destroys the Type 2 pneumocytes, and alveoli collapse.

IgM and IgG antibodies response

In response to infection, the body produces macrophages to engulf and destroy the virus which in turn activates the MH-C2 complement system. S-protein binds with the MH-C2 complement system, which triggers T-helper cells to produce cytokines and convert B-cells to plasma cells by differentiation and proliferation. Both IgM and IgG antibodies are produced by plasma cells in response to primary immune response. The IgM antibodies provide the first line of defense, followed by IgG antibodies which are highly adaptive and produce high-affinity immunoglobin response for long term immunity and immunological memory detectable within 7 days after IgM response.

Importance of IgM/IgG rapid test

The IgM/IgG rapid test kit is a fast and effective method for the detection of COVID-19. It is suitable for the qualitative detection of SARS-COV2 IgM/IgG antibodies in plasma, serum, and whole blood. It detects the stage of infection I-e. active infection (IgM) as well as passive infection (igG).

Precautionary measures are taken by patron/ organization to keep the workplace safe

The world is in the grip of Coronavirus pandemic, and even after the declaration by the government that the coronavirus is gone people will still be cautious. COVID-19 will incorporate changes in the workplace throughout the USA and worldwide. The workplace dynamics will change and companies, as well as employees, will have to adapt to these new changes.

Here are basic gleanings that are highly possible and will become the norm for organizations, businesses, patron, and employees.

Coronavirus surveillance desk

Organizations may establish a surveillance desk where a focal person will notify instructions and guidelines to the employees about the coronavirus and how to keep yourself safe.

 Behavioral interventions for employees

  • Place health education material and preventive information poster that encourages hygiene practices, cough, and sneeze etiquettes.
  • Instruct and circulate the information for the employees to clean their hands especially after going to the bathroom, before eating, and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing often with hand sanitizer or wash their hands with soap and water for 20 seconds.

Structural interventions for employers

  • Make necessary arrangements for washing or disinfection of the commonly used doorknobs, reception tables, shelves, canteen tables, etc.
  • Provide tissues and no-touch disposal receptacles for use by employees at the workplace.
  • It provides hand sanitizer, soap, and water in the workplace.
  • Place hand sanitizer in multiple locations in conference rooms to encourage hand hygiene.
  • Housekeeping staff should routinely clean coffee pots, landline phones, door handle, elevator buttons, and light switches which are frequently used by employees.

Waste management and disinfection policies

  • Waste disposal SOPs for the organization so that sanitary staff may properly dispose or burn the tissues or other consumable items within dustbins
  • Provide hand and mouth care PPEs to the sanitary staff.

Clean workstation

Employers must encourage employees to keep their workplace clean and disinfected. Do not allow other people to use your desk, computer, stationery items, and other work tools/equipment.

Social distancing

Patron must instruct employees to keep a safe distance of about 3ft. elbow shakes will become a new norm.

Work from home 

Businesses and organizations will shift to a policy of work from home. Employs may not return to physical office structure and will opt for work from home policy. it is convenient, safe, and productive.

Virtual meetings

After the panic ends there will be more demand for fast internet as more patrons use it frequently for video conference calls and online meetings. Digitization will be introduced in every sector.

Sick leave

The organization may have to maintain a flexible sick leave policy for potentially ill employees.

Monitor and restrict Travel 

Take records of each employee’s travel to the different areas inside and outside of the country.

Advise employees who travel to check themselves for symptoms of COVID-19 before and after the travel and notify their official focal person if they are sick.

Monthly medical checkup

The organization may require to get its employees to test for the infectious disease every month or in between every 3 months. They could set up a Rapid test kit at the surveillance desk and test employees who have traveled outside or who are suspicious carriers of the virus. Because of fast results (less than 5 minutes), the rapid test kits might be useful in early detection and prevent the spread of the virus to other employees.


The COVID-19 pandemic is a live issue and even after it ends the world wouldn’t be the same as it used to be. People will resist social interaction. Face masks and hand sanitizers will be a new addition to the hygienic routine. Once people find themselves satisfactory to work from home, more and more people will do so. Offices interior may change to incorporate “2ft social distancing rule” and also implement the Covid-19 Rapid Test. Employees will work in a secluded area. Organizations will go for virtual meetings.


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